Philosophy and Science for the Third Millennium
Descartes in Ten Minutes
An Essay by Christopher Bek
Summary—Descartes in Ten Minutes tells the story of RenÚ Descartes and his philosophy set against a history of existentialism.
deem him their worst enemy who tells them the truth.
The gateway to universal knowledge may be opened by the unified field theory upon which Einstein has been at work for a quarter century. Today the outer limits of man’s knowledge are defined by relativity, the inner limits by quantum theory. Relativity has shaped all our concepts of space, time, gravitation, and the realities that are too remote and too vast to be perceived. Quantum theory has shaped all our concepts of the atom, the basic units of matter and energy, and the realities that are too elusive and too small to be perceived. Yet these two great scientific systems rest on entirely different and unrelated theoretical foundations. The purpose of Einstein’s unified field theory is to construct a bridge between them.
Restricting a body of knowledge to a small group deadens the philosophical spirit of a people and leads to spiritual poverty.
Albert Einstein discovered that even the most complex notions could be reduced to a simple set of fundamental principles.
It is a wonderful feeling to recognize the unifying features of a complex phenomena which present themselves as quite unconnected to the direct experience of the senses.
The Bernoulli Form elucidates the notion of Platonic Forms in describing how a motley crew of Forms—including Delphi, forecasting, integration, utility, optimization, efficiency and complementary—come together to form The Bernoulli Model.
The Method of Moments elucidates the notion of Platonic Forms in describing how a motley crew of Forms—including Delphi, forecasting, integration, utility, optimization, efficiency and complementary—come together to form The Bernoulli Model.
The Efficient Frontier examines the notions of God, option theory, portfolio theory, faith, reason and Arab math—finally arriving at the inescapable conclusion that all roads of sound decisionmaking lead to the efficient frontier.
The Unpardonable Sin charges all honourables and doctors in Canada with heresy, child abuse and the unpardonable sin that Christ spoke of—which is the deliberate refusal to follow the light when seen.
The Uncertainty Principle contrasts Einstein with Heisenberg, relativity with quantum theory, behavioralism with existentialism, certainty with uncertainty and philosophy with science—finally arriving at the inescapable Platonic conclusion that the true philosopher is always striving after Being and will not rest with those multitudinous phenomena whose existence are appearance only.
A Formal Patient congratulates Alberta Health and Wellness for insisting on the accountability of due process in declaring individuals to be formal patients—and argues that I am being considered a formal patient as the result of an absence of due process elsewhere in Canada—and that I should not be considered a formal patient but that I should be declared disabled on account of being outside the cave of behaviorism.
Singularity identifies the trigger of the looming paradigm shift from the three-dimensionally conscioused Everyman to the four-dimensionally conscioused Superman as the 1935 Schr÷dinger's Cat though problem—which proves that consciousness is real.
The Great Cosmic Accounting Blunder compares the two physical fixedpoints in the universe—lightspeed and Planck’s constant—and argues that we have been guilty of double counting up until now and that in fact there is but one fixedpoint—which, as it turns out, is the boundary of the universe.
The Unified Field Theory counts down the Euclidean hits from five to one in categorically nailing the vast majority of this little thing I like to call cosmic pi. At this point in spacetime I would like to pay special tribute to my excellent wingman Albert Einstein (1879–1955).
Closing the Liars Loophole identifies the malignant cancer within the healthcare system and society as the outwardly focusing behavioural psychological model, which denies the existence of consciousness—while the inwardly focusing existential model makes consciousness and the soul primordially important.
George Bernhard Shaw (1856-1950) was an the Irish-born writer who is considered the most significant British dramatist since Shakespeare. He once told the story of where he was talking to a woman at a social function. He asked the woman whether she would sleep with him for a million dollars. She paused and then said sure. He then asked her whether she would sleep with him for fifty dollars. She responded by saying—No, what type of woman do you think I am? He said—Well, we know what type of woman you are—now we are just trying to determine the price.
Socrates and Plato. The Greek Socrates (470-399 BC) radically insisted that we must first answer the question of what X is before we can say anything else about X. In that Socrates never wrote a single word of philosophy—we know him from the writings of Plato (427-347 BC). Plato used his famous allegory of the cave to illustrate the difference between spurious belief and genuine knowledge. Imagine prisoners chained inside a cave such that they only see the shadows projected on the wall from the fire behind them. A prisoner named Socrates breaks free of his chains and climbs out of the cave into daylight. After his eyes adjust to the light he returns to the cave intending to free the prisoners. But back inside the cave Socrates now has trouble making out the shadows. And his obvious attempt at liberation only serves to anger the prisoners for revealing the illusionary nature of their existence. They become so overwrought with anxiety that they proceed to kill him for it. Plato also wrote the definitive argument of knowledge by asserting that true or a priori knowledge must be certain and infallible and it must be of real, eternal objects or Forms.
Saint Augustine and Saint Anselm. Saint Augustine (354-430) once portrayed existence as an ontological set of stairs leading to God. Augustine also foreshowed the Cartesian cogito—ie. cogito, ergo sum—ie. I think, therefore I exist. In helping to formulate Neoplatonism, Augustine converted Platonic philosophy into that which was acceptable to the Church. The ontological argument is an a priori argument for the existence of God—asserting that the conception of the perfect being implies the existence of that being outside the mind of man. The crux of the argument lies with the notion that a perfect being must necessarily exist for that being to be considered perfect—for otherwise the being would lack an essential component of perfection, namely existence. In other words, according to the argument, the very conceptualization of God directly leads to the conclusion of Her existence. The argument originated in the eleventh century with an Augustinian by the name of Saint Anselm (1033-1109). An Augustinian is a member of the Roman Catholic Church whose constitutions are based on the teachings of religious life as set forth by Saint Augustine. The Augustinian order allowed Anselm the latitude within the Church to authentically reexamine the notion of God.
Ockham and Pascal. The English monk William of Ockham (1285-1349) was one of the greatest thinkers of all time. He was known for his keen sense of logic and his enduring theological ideologies. Going entirely against the philosophy of his time, Ockham put forth his now famous principle of economy—which states the plurality of reasons should not be postulated without necessity. Or in other words, if all things are equal, the simplest theory tends to be the right one. Ockham employed his principle so frequently and with such purpose that it became known as Ockham’s razor. He claimed it is vain to do with more what can be done with less. And even today, Ockham’s razor still remains the very foundation of all truly authentic philosophic and scientific reasoning. The French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal (1623-62) originated option theory with his famous wager regarding the questions of existence and ultimate nature of God. His argument came during the Renaissance in response to those unwilling to believe in God strictly on faith and authority. Pascal argued that living a simple life which seeks to understand God represents the option premium which then allows for the possibility of salvation should it turn out that God does exist.
Descartes’ Work. RenÚ Descartes (1596-1650) was a French philosopher, scientist, mathematician and solider. He was the father of modern philosophy—ie. the Cartesian cogito—and the father of modern mathematics—ie. algebra plus geometry equals analytic geometry—and the system of Cartesian coordinates. Descartes insisted on the primacy of the individual and the analysis of human consciousness. This starting point for existential philosophy is the Cartesian cogito—ie. cogito, ergo sum—ie. I think, therefore I exist. Descartes formulated his famous Cartesian Model for constructing arguments which is—Order thoughts from simple to complex—Only accept clear and distinct ideas as true—Divide arguments into as many parts as necessary—Check thoroughly for oversights—And, using reversibility, rehearse, examine and test arguments over and over until they can be grasped with a single act of intuition or faith. Initially, one faithfully or intuitively senses truth, which is followed up by constructing rational arguments and then intuitively capturing completed arguments. In other words, faith leads us to reason and then reason leads us back to faith. Descartes also formulated the theory of systematic doubt whereby the existentialist says no to any argument no matter how plausible so long as he saw the possibility of doubting the argument.
Descartes’ Life. By the end of the sixteenth century philosophy had ceased to progress—and it was Descartes who started it up again. Descartes sought certainly throughout life. He graduated from law school although he never practiced law. His father was a judge. Descartes slept until noon every day of his life and never worked a day of his life. He lived off his mother’s inheritance. Descartes was afforded the luxury of being largely self-taught while attending a Jesuit school. In the afternoon he would study mathematics, riding, fencing and flute-playing. After law school Descartes went on an extended tour of Europe—finally settling in the philosophically liberal Holland. Queen Christina of Sweden was a fan of Descartes—and sent a warship to collect him from Holland with the intention of turning Stockholm into the philosophic centre of the north. At fifty-three he was still rising at noon every day. Christina insisted on philosophy and science lessons taught at five in the morning. After a month in an icy Sweden Descartes caught pneumonia and died. Upon hearing of his death, Christina said that her philosopher had promised her that he would to live until one hundred—It seems he has not kept his promise. One of the greatest minds of all time sacrificed to the whim of royalty at the age of fifty-four.
Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. S°ren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) was a Danish religious philosopher concerned with subjective existence and moral choice. In his first major work Either/Or Kierkegaard described two spheres of existence in the aesthetic and the ethical. The aesthetic chooses a way of life that is a refined version of hedonism and sensualism consisting of a search for pleasure. The ethical way of life involves an intense and passionate commitment to duty and to the unconditional social and religious obligations. Kierkegaard then advocated taking a leap of faith from the aesthetic to the ethical. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was a German philosopher and poet who made philosophy dangerous for not only philosophers but for the Everyman as well—ie. those choosing the aesthetic sphere of existence. The Will to Power is the basic impulse of our actions. It is the essence of Being oneself. He defined Superman as an individual who chooses the road less traveled—and also chooses the ethical sphere of existence. Nietzsche defined eternal reoccurrence as the notion that we live our lives over and over again.
Sartre and Camus. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) was a French philosopher, dramatist, novelist and political journalist, who was a leading exponent of existentialism and later on he advocated Marxism. He defined existentialism as the philosophy for which existence precedes essence. For manmade things, the idea of the thing comes before the actual thing itself—that is, essence precedes existence. But for man, who arrives on the scene and then becomes what he is, existence precedes essence. The difference is that man continually creates his own essence in every moment through his decisions and actions. Like Socrates and Descartes before him, Sartre insisted on the primacy of the individual and the analysis of human consciousness. Albert Camus (1913-1960) was a French-Algerian novelist, essayist, dramatist and journalist—and friend of Sartre. He was a Nobel laureate whose concepts of the absurd and of human revolt address and suggest solutions to the existentialism problem of meaninglessness in modern human life. Every great writer touches the young—and Camus was no exception. He spoke to his generation. Not only did he write about existentialism, but he lived the life of an existentialist. His works exist today and still exerts an extraordinary influence.
Conclusion. The entire world of philosophy radiates outwardly from the Cartesian cogito. According to the Freudian cognitive model, the reality-based ego is the decisionmaker who must choose between the internal values of the id—and the external authority of the superego. The Cartesian cogito chooses the id over the superego. The Cartesian Model combined with the method of systematic doubt puts forth an awesome model for constructing arguments.